【忆pc加拿大 名家】孔孚: 中国诗坛新山川诗派的“祭酒”

作者: 杨守森 颁发日期: 2020年12月10日 16:30  点击: []

孔孚(1925-1997),原名孔令桓,字笑白,闻名山川墨客,被誉为“古代西方奥秘主义诗歌”的开辟者。1925年4月1日生于曲阜乡村。1947年毕业于山东省立师范专科学校史地系,后执教于曲阜师范,起头处置诗歌创作。1949年到公共日报社任务,任《公共日报》文艺编辑,1979年调至pc加拿大 古代文学研讨室,任中文系副传授。1950年起头颁发作品。1986年离休并插手中国作家协会。60岁时,出书第一本诗集《山川浊音》,后又连续出书诗集《山川灵音》《孔孚山川》《孔孚山川诗选》,还出书有诗论集《远龙之扪》、诗文集《孔孚集》,和《孔孚山川诗研讨论集》。诗集《山川浊音》获山东省首届泰山文艺创作一等奖、《孔孚山川·峨嵋卷》获1991年山东省优异图书奖一等奖、1991年天下打算单列市出书社优异图书一等奖。

诗坛“怪杰”

kongfu,yuanmingkonglinghuan,zixiaobai。1925nian4yue1rishengyushandongqufuyigegengduzhijia。congjishiqi,shenweixuetangjiaoshidefuqinqingjiaotabeisongtangshi,jiuzaiqiyouxiaodeneixinliboxialeshidezhongzi。kongfu1suiduoxuebushi,yinkelianbeizhadaowushangluokongleyoushou,juehoubianfenfayongzuoshouhukouhejinxiu。1944nianzhi1947nian,kongfujiuduyushandongshenglishifanzhuankexuexiaoshidixi。1949nian,jin《gonggongribao》sherenwu,danfuwenyibianji。zi1950nianqitou,yi“kongfu”weibimingbanfashigezuopin。

zi1955nianqi,kongfulvzaozhengzhifenglangyingxiang。1979nian,genzhexinshiqidedaolai,caideyifuguianjing。tongnianqiu,yingtianzhongjishizhangjiaoshizhiyao,beidiaorushandongshifanxueyuanzhongwenxizhongguogudaiwenxueyantaozhongjian,chuzhigudaiwenxueyantaoyu《gushichengzhangshi》dexiezuorenwu。1986nianlixiuhou,kongfumanshenxintourushigechuangzuozhong,chushuyoushiji《shanchuanzhuoyin》《shanchuanlingyin》《kongfushanchuanshixuan》《kongfushanchuan》、riwenbanshixuan《shanchuanyao》、shilunji《yuanlongzhimen》、shiwenheji《kongfuji》deng。

zaizhongguojinshishitanshang,kongfukancheng“guaijie”。zheiweibaojingmonandemoke,suimunianjiuyizhongqingyushi,danyongtabenshendehuashuo,shi“54suijinhoucaizhenzhengxiechuyidianshilai”。tahuoxubucengtuice,benshendeshizuo,buzhixishoulehenduoduzhe,bingqiehuodelezhuduowenmingmoke、xuezhedegaodupinggu。gongliuyiwei,“kongfubiaoxinliyidexinshanchuanshi,queqiemibulewoguoziyoukouyushiyilai70yuniandeyidakongque”,haoling“zanmendewenyidanwei、xueshudanweihechushudanwei,douyingdangyizhengciyandiweikongfufabuzhanbao,xianrongtadeguanghuigongxiao,shenmingtadeyanzhongyisi”;liyingjiangshiqishige“jianlianjuanyong、gaoyaqingling”;qianzhongshuzejiangkongfushizuo“kailiupai”zhe;1985nian9yue26ri,meiguo《meizhouhuayiribao》banfazhangpianpipingwenzhang,shengzantashi“xianjinzhongguoshitanxinshanchuanshipaide‘jijiu’”。

kongfubuzhizaishigefangmianzhuoyouchengji,zaishufafangmianyechengjiubufan。tayongzuoshouchuangzuodeshufazuopin,zaijieti、guihua、xianzhidengfangmian,doudaodalechonggaogaoguideyishujingdi,zuchenglechabieyuzhongguoshufashishangrenheyijiayipaideqiyitexing。1996nian5yue,you《gonggongribao》hepcjianada zaishandongmeishuguanjiehejuxingdechucikongfushuzhan,jifalehendadezhandou,qizuopinbodeleshehuigejierenshidechongai。shijishang,kongfufanfanhenshaoxiezi,jingchangzhishizainianguanchouchuyiliangdilijian,xiejifuzisongjibanlv。taliuxiadeshangbaifushuzuo,shouyaoshizaimunianyangbingshiqi,haoqingeranbaofa,zaiduanduan1geduoyuedeshichenneishixiande。chushaonianshiqideruzigongyiwai,tajuehoubingweichuliyushufa,quezaishufashangshouchenglebuliaozhiyu,zheibunengbushuoshifashengzaikongfushenshangdeyouyiguji。

“狂狷”“孤傲”的诗性品德


dafanlinghuikongfuhuoduguoqishiwenzhe,yingdangchengshiganchuganrandao: kongfushizhenzhengfuyoushixingpindezhe。taguaoqingkuang,kuangjuanbuji,yongsongsuiliangshizhangjiaoshidehuashuo: “zhangyishengaoaozhigu,piyijiankuangjuanzhiqi。”

tadekuangjuanyuguaobiaocikeshiyishang,bianshiganyuaonixianzhe。

zaishilunfangmian,taguranhenshangshisongrenyanyude《canglangshihua》,danyebuketaodizhichu: yanyuguoduchenlunshuji,shixianbukuan,meixueshangxihaoyuanjiange,yanqueyouxieyuanshi;suikuadaxieshiyao“zhijiebenyuan”,quebingbuzhenzhengtandaodaqiantianxiaashei“quanyuan”,naizhiduicongashei“quanyuan”fenchulaideliu“yebushenmingxi”。duihanqingshanghenduowenmingmoke,tadouyouguofenglidepingdian。zaitayanzhong,taoyuanmingweirengesongde“caijudonglixia,youranjiannanshan”,buguoshipingpingpingdan,diji“tianran”bale。jirulibai、shefu,tayiyiweibuyong“pingdiyangzhi”。tacenglishiyaoyuli、duyijiaogaodi,tayaoyong“yinxian”deshouduan,“tuan”chuyige“xuyuzhou”。

tazai《tiji》yishizhongxiedao:

出佛出道

亦牛亦马

何必千手千眼

抟虚宇宙

zanmenjincongzheiyipianshide“xuanyan”zhong,cong“tuanxuyuzhou”depaitouzhong,bianzukekanchukongfuzaishiyixunqiufangmianshirenchongbaide“kuangqi”yudazhi。

yu“kuang”xianggan,kongfushiyimingguaozhe。

tajingchangyixiaowojijiduxingyushanchuanzhijian,cengdandulangdangyulaoshanbangeduoyue;tacengweibenshenxieguoyifudoufang,shangshulianggezi: “jiren”;tacengxieguoyipianhanyouzikuangxiangzhengdesanwen,biaotitimushi: 《“jiren”,“lengjingdi”》。1996nian,zaijinanjuxingdekongfushuzhanshang,taxiexiaruxuliangjutici:

荒荒宇宙一人行,且听汗青之反响。

tazai《laodingsuxie》zhongxiedao:

安步在天上

只需我和太阳

zai《dayuzhongguoleishenxia》zhongxiedao:

我与雷神同业

拄一根断枝

zaimangmangyuzhouzhong,yinanmitongzhiyuzhiyin,zhixutianshangdetaiyangyuleishenzhileinenggouhuoxujiebanyuanyou、nenggouhuoxubiciweijiele。zheibianshikongfude“daguao”。kongfu,bianshiruxuyimingyouzheyikeshenqiedeguaozhixindemoke。

1986年冬在pc加拿大 校园

kongfudeguao,bushihukoudeguao,ershixingmingdeguao。tadeguao,haobushilaiziyuduihukoujiyunqideyuandui,ershiyizhongzhexueyisishangdexingmingdeguao,shimokedujudezishijiqijinglishijiaoxiaxingmingdexianxianqingshi,shiyizhongzhenzhengshuyushihemokedeshenqiedeguao。

hukoudeguao,jingchangyuanyurenshengdezhudongyumeifa,nenggouhuoxushirencangmangdezhi,nenggouhuoxuxiaoshirenshengderechen、yongqihejuedingxinnian;erxingmingdeguao,zejingchangyuanyugebiechaochenbasuderuizhiheguanqiewanwudexionghuai,shizhuangzi“duyuliuhejinglilaiwang”zhi“guao”。zhei“guao”nenggouhuoxushirenangyangfenfa,nenggouhuoxujifarenweiruodexingminghuoqi,nenggouhuoxuhuanqirenguangbodeaiyuheganqing。zaikongfudeshizhong,shanshuozhedeqiashiruxuyizhongjudadexingmingzhiguang。rutazai《feixuezhongyuantiaohuabuzhu》xiedao:

它是孤傲的

在铅色的穹庐之下


几十亿年

仍是一个骨朵


雪落着

看!它在用力儿开

kanzheiguaodeshan,bugudanhebeishang,bucaiyihedezhi,ershiyouzheruhebujide、guzhidexingminghuoqia!neihua“guduo”“jishiyinian” le,rengyudingponei“qiansedeqionglu”,yixiangzai“yonglier”kai。zanmencongzhongkandaode,qiashimokebenshenangranbuqudexingmingchouxiang。

宇宙洪荒的诗歌境地

haodeshizuo,buzhixubiaoxianwei“shi”,haiyaozhenyuchonggaogaoguidejingdi。

anzongbaihuadeguandian,yishudejingdishi“liuhejingdi”,huoyue“yuzhoujingdi”。congshijinglaikan,kongfushigedegaoshendedifang,haizaiyuduigaotiaolideyuzhoujingdidexunqiu。tacengdabaijiangguo: “yishudezuigaojingdibianshiyuzhoucengmian,dangzhanzaizheigegaodukantimudeshichenjiuquantongle,shenmewuwo、zhuke、nangxi、cike、jianglai,zaiwozheilimanshitongde。wuwoquanxi,shikongquanxi。wozhixuxunmizhendongduzhexinlingneigenxiandeasheidian,yizuijianlvedebiaojijifaduzhefashenggongzhen。zhixurendelingqidongle,shenmedizaolichengshishengshouhuilai。”

zaixiangxizuopinzhong,ruxuyizhongyuzhoujingdishouyaobiaocike:

广博壮阔之境。孔孚的诗,虽多是寥寥数语,但此中显现出来的,常是一个广博壮阔的设想空间。在《轩辕柏》一诗中,你会看到如许震动民气的场景: 黄陵轩辕庙内的那株轩辕柏,正在彼苍为之铺好的“云锦笺”上,“以长春绿/写五千年汗青”。品读《青州古城晚眺驼山》,你会随那只“驮一轮夕照”、昂起的头颅“超出跨越群星”的骆驼,走进一个广宽无垠的天下。

kongfushigechuangzuozhongde“qujing”,changchengxinshidiqu“feiqilai,tuanyangjiaoershang,zaijiuwanlidedimian,erhouxiangxiayangwang”degaojiange、yuanjiangeshijiao。qiashiyoucishijiao,mokecaipiejian: neiyulun,“zhanzhelengwu/weidaexiesheng”(《echuyue》);“huanghe”chengweibohaizhongyige“zhandou”de“yinfu”(《bohaiyinxiang》);laoshan,“zhuozuyuwanlizhangbo/jiandayitiaobaiyun”(《laoshan》)。zaizheileishizhong,caizuchenglehaokuodeyuzhouqiyan。

太古洪荒之境。孔孚的很多诗,会将读者引入一个超出世俗炊火、人世纷争、存亡悲欢,而“与宇宙为友,与六合闲谈”,类乎德国景象学哲学家胡塞尔所主意的悬搁统统、寻求景象学复原的太古洪荒之境。如在《崂山》中,他写出的是:

崂山在海边寻思

回想他的童年

当时他把大海当竹马骑呢

敲打着太阳这个铜盘

zai《qianfoshandianwojiandaoyigebeiqiao》zhong,taxiangdaodeshi:

跨上鲸背

游向荒古水天

tazai《gaoyuanye》zhongxiedao:

寂灭之深渊

宇宙孵卵

zaizheileishijingzhong,zanmenhuiganchuganrandaoyijixingmingronghuayuyongjiu、gebieziworonghuiyuyuzhoudexinshenxinwei,huishenchiyu“xijinchenzi,ducungujiong”depozhipinde,erzheibianshiyuzhoujingdideyishumeiliyudaijia。

幽邃玄秘之境。孔孚的诗中,另有一种奥妙莫测、使人遐思不尽的奥秘美。在黄山天都峰上,于暴风暴雨占据了大宇宙的暴戾空气中,墨客仰望雷电,竟然闻声“有婴儿哭泣”;在峨嵋息心所,竟然“来一山灵/摩我的心”。在无人读懂的泰山无字碑前,墨客写一条青虫“在读”。别的,诗中不断显现玄狐——二仙山上,它把“长长的尾巴拖进傍晚”;钻天坡上,它在“合十”祷告;峨嵋金顶,它立于一片危岩,竖耳聆听着人世的奥秘;在泰山曲径,它竟“手拈莲翅”,引墨客“入黄花洞中”……悟透六合玄机、洞彻人世幽秘的“玄狐”及其虚无缥缈的奇异之象,无疑为孔孚的山川诗平增一种兴会通灵的奇趣、一种奥妙莫测的奥秘美。透过这奥秘和诗境,咱们会感应,墨客的眼光,穿透了有与无、生与死、灵与肉、物资与精力、古往与今来、时辰与空间的壁垒,窥测到了宇宙本原的朝气,触摸到了六合万象的律动,参透了大千天下的永久,终究具备宇宙情怀、臻于宇宙境地。

zanmenchangshuo,haodewenyizuopinshijubeichaochuxingde。eryuzhoujingdi,qiashichaochuxingdezhigaobiaoxian。kongfudebushaoshizuo,xianxianchudeqiashiruxuyizhongzhigaojingdi。jiuqishenmeigongxiaoeryan,zheijingdiwuyijubeiliuxiesuoshuode“shuyuewuzang,zaoxuejingli”zhixiao,nenggouhuoxujirenyigengjiagaokuangpiaoyideganqingxuntao。

“孔孚味”的诗艺寻求

zaizhongguojinshishitanshang,kongfushiyimingduishizhibentitedianyouzheshenqiedongde,qiezhenzhengchimiyushi、zhuanxinyushiyimosuodemoke,qixunqiushouyaobiaocike:

“隐现”与“远龙”之境。孔孚曾大白表现,他的诗歌创作,寻求的是“隐现”,即在写作进程中,既不拘泥于“实象”之模写,亦不步趋于“意象”之缔造,而是顺从“无”即“大有”的中国道家哲学聪明。不拘于象,从有到无,想法以“无象”隐“有象”、以“大虚”隐“大有”,从而缔造出他所倾慕的 “无鳞无爪”之“远龙”境地。如在《渤海印象》中,面临黄河入海口的景观,墨客既未写渤海,也没写黄河,其视线核心,只集合于那黄河在大海中缩成的一个“颤抖着”的“音符”。这便是孔孚所寻求的“隐现”,所缔造出的“远龙”诗境,墨客恰是借“隐现”组成的“大虚”之象,将渤海湾之壮阔交予读者让其自在设想了。

“灵视”与“灵美”意趣。与重“隐显”“出虚”相干,孔孚以为,真正属于诗的意象,毫不能来自目之所见,而是得之于“灵视”。他讲过,他的诗要创出既差别于“第一天然”也差别于“第二天然”的“第三天然”。他所说的“第一天然”指的是直陈其事;“第二天然”乃王维式的“以物观物”;“第三天然”则是“以虚观虚——以灵觉观灵物”,也便是“大虚”。对孔孚的诗歌有深切研讨的批评家刘强的观点是有事理的: 诗论史上有“实象”“意象”之说,但在孔孚这儿,寻求的是“灵象”,这是具备里程碑意思的创见。在孔孚看来,“实象”是可画的,欠虚,固乏诗意;很多“意象”也仍是可画的,因此仍是“小虚”;而“灵象”是相对画不出来的“大虚”。孔孚的诗歌中之以是真正有“诗”,即因此中到处可见出之“大虚”。

yinyouyu“wenyizaidao”zhileidechuantongwenxueguan,duikongfudemouxieshi,yiyourencheng“kanbuchu”yaoshufashenmeyiyun。duici,kongfudehuifushi: “youdeshibubiranbaoluoshenme,buguozuoweiyijian‘yishupin’ercunzai。”“youdeshi,bianshi‘zhikelingwu,nanyiyanchuan’。”“shibushiweile‘kaozheng’zhexue、meixue。yankushuo,yibuke‘chanshi’。”“‘liangduanbaigushounayan’,bushenmeshilikeyan。‘lingmei’bale!”

“减法”与佳构认识。孔孚频频夸大过本身的创作准绳: “简”(或曰“减法”)。这“简”不是指简化诗的外表情势,而是要极力将太实的、非诗意的工具减掉,只留下有诗意的工具,从而写出诗之佳构。按其“减法”之则,孔孚每首诗的创作,都颠末不断改进、频频斟酌。如《古德林安步》一诗,开头原为两句: “字间杂有鸟语/鸠摩罗什受惊”,后只留一句,径以“字间杂有鸟语”作结。墨客本身如许阐发点窜启事: “出鸠摩罗什一象,便是有了划定。‘受惊’仿佛有味,但也是划定。不如落到‘字间杂有鸟语’这活处好。”仅此一例,便可看出墨客在创作进程中,投入了如何松散详尽、不断改进的匠心。

kongfushizhongzhiyishiyou“shi”,zhiyishiyouhenduojiagou,zhiyishizuchenglemeifaweirenxiaofangde“kongfuwei”,bianshiyinweitazhuanxinyiqiu、buduangaijin。

富有创见的诗学进献

kongfudeshi,zikanchengshanchuanshi,huoyuexinshanchuanshi,danshijishangkongfuduizhongguojinshishitandejinxian,buzhizaiyuxiechuledujuyigedeshanchuanshi,haizaiyuqifuyouchuangjianxingdeshixuesilv。jincongtatichubingpinpinchanshude“yuanlongzhijing”“chuxu”“daxu”“lingshi”“yinxiang”zheixiexinqidudaodeshixueshuyuzhong,jiuhuiganchuganrandaokongfuzaishigeshijifangmiandechuangjianxing。

kongfusuoshuode“yuanlong”,jifeizhijuxiangdekejianzhilong,yifeizhilongshenshangdepianzhizhizi,ershi“wulinwuzhua”zhilong。zaitakanlai,“pianzhizhizi”shangshi“xiaoxu”,you“lingshi”erdede“wulinwuzhua”zhilongcaishi“daxu”。tazaishizhonglitudebianshizheilei“daxu”zhijing。

kongfusuoqingmuzhuonade“yuanlong”,shiyigeyouzheshenzhizhexueyiyundezhicheng,tajinyulaozide“dao”,yileihuhaidegeerde“benzhencunzai”。nei“yuanlong”、nei“dao”、nei“cunzai”,doushibukeyanshuode,chugebunengyongbimoxingmaode,zhiyurendezhutixinxingxianggan,qieyishitongren、yinjingerbian、huanghumoce。qiashizheihuanghumoce,shideshigede“tianxiazhimen”deyichangkai,qingliangchengmingzhijingdeyixianxian。qiashiyou“yuanlong”shijiaodongshen,kongfulipanjiyu“zaidaolun”dechuantongshigedaijiaguan。zaitakanlai: shibushishelun,“bunengqiwangtagaibiantiandi。tazhibuguoshixiang: nengyurenzhixingshezhongzhuyidianer‘lingxing’bale!”“zanmende‘renwu’,bianshishixinlideguannengganchuganranquanshushengru‘ling’detiaoli;bingshuzhishiqi‘tong’;tuanxuyuzhou,yihuanqiwozhonghuaminzuzhi‘lingxing’”。yuchuantongde“zaidaolun”bini,zheifangfoshi“wuyong”,shizebaoluozhe“dayong”。

1986年秋孔孚在峨嵋山

kongfudezheiyiguandian,shiqiejinshizhishizhitediande——peiyangrendelingxingyaobifanshisuoshuode“jiaodaoyisi”gengjiazhuyao。yixiaowo,zhixujubeilelingxing,caibuhuimixinshuncong、weimingshicong、beigongquxi;caihuipindechaomai、siweihuopo、ganxianggangan、ganyudizao。kongfuneixiefuyushexiangcongming、daodayuzhoujingdideshizuo,qiashijubeiruxuyizhongnenggouhuoxupeiyangminzulingxing、renzhilingxingde“dayong”。

须要进一步深思的是,持久以来,在咱们的文艺实际中,一向出格夸大诗之教导功效。实际上,有主题思惟、有教导意思的诗是好诗,而文学史上很多难说有甚么主题思惟、甚么教导意思的诗,也能够或许是好诗甚或是更好的诗。相反,有的诗,因主题思惟及教导意思过分显现,反而落空诗味了。文学史家大多以为宋诗不如唐诗,缘由即在于唐诗主情、宋诗主办单位:pc加拿大

duiyuzhongguoshigedechengzhangguocheng,kongfufamingleruxuyizhongqiyijingxiang: mouxiejingyushidaodexianxian,gurancongshijishangdabai“congyoudaowu”deshidao,danzaililunzhongjingchangyoutuizhongneixieanshenyushijijiaoyang、jubeikongjiaofengcaidezuopin。lingtashenganyihandeshi,baoluozhexifangzhexuecongmingde“yuanlong”,benyinghufenghuanyu、zhulangjishuiyuzhonghuaminzudeshizhizhanghe,danyinweigezhongyuanyou,zheitiaoshiheyuqianbainianqianbianyiyusaile,yushizhishizhixiangbeide“xieshilun”“zaidaolun”jingchengweishijiezhuchao。kongfujihu,zheiyiyusaizhiyishuheliu,bixucongtouwajue,yishi“gongranzhiqianliudeyiyongchu,yangyanghuliuyuxifang”。tongshi,tahaibeiguandiyuyan: “zaowanyouyitian,huiyoudiergepangde,xiangxifangzuodiercichaosheng。dangshitamensuojingqide,jiangbushishenlongzhipianzhizhizi,ershi‘wulinwuzhua’deaomizhuyigudaixifang‘yuanlong’”。

jiuzhongguojinshishigedechanglongyuchengzhangeryan,kongfushangshuduiyu“shi”zhishizhi、“shi”zhigongxiao,hezhongguogushidejianglaizouxiangdengzhuyaotimudesilvyukanfa,wuyishiyouzhuyaoqidiyiside,shiyoudaiyuzanmenzuojinyibushenqieyantaode。

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