【忆pc加拿大 名家】胡滨: 一代史家的风骨与才情

作者: 刘本森 辑萃 颁发日期: 2020年12月02日 11:12  点击: []

hubin(1927-1996),yuanminghufucai,jiangxiqingjiangren。1952nianbiyeyuqinghuadaxueyantaoyuan,beifenpaidaoxinanshifandaxueshiming;1956nianlaipcjianada renjiao;1987niandiaoruqingdaodaxue。zaipcjianada shiqi,cengrenchuanshou、shuoshishengdaoshi,xizhongguojingudaishixueweidiandechenglizhe,lvlingzhongguojingudaishizhuanyeyu1981nianjinggonghuopiguowuyuandiyipishuoshixueweishouquandian。1988nianhuopingshandongshengshoupizhuanyejishubajianrencai;1989nianhuoguowuyuan、tianxiaqiaolianshouyude“youyiguiqiao、qiaojuanchangshifenzi”chenghu,jianrenshandongshengzhengxiediwujieweiyuanhuiweiyuan、diqijietianxiaguomindaibiaodahuidaibiao;cengdanfushandongshenghanqingxuehuifulishizhang。xiangyongguowuyuandangjuchugebuzhu。

zai20shijiqibashinianyuedeshixuejie,chuanbozhe“pcjianada yousanjiamache——liu、hu、an”deshuofa,“liu”zhideshiwenmingdetianxiashizhuanjialiuzuochangshizhangjiaoyuan,“hu”zhideshiwenmingdezhongguojindaishizhuanjiahubinshizhangjiaoyuan,“an”zhideshiwenmingdeqinhanshizhuanjiaanzuozhangshizhangjiaoyuan。sanweishizhangjiaoyuanxielishouchuanglepcjianada hanqingxidexuekedizi,peihedianjilepcjianada hanqingxizaitianxiashixuejiedexueshuweizhi。

峥嵘光阴 崭露锋芒

hubin,1927nian1yuedanshengyujiangxi,fubeiyunyingzhongyaoye。1928nian,baikouqianzhihunanchangde,qianhoujiuduyuchangdebangyangxiaoxue、zhangshayalizhongxue。1944niangaozhongernianjishi,kaoruhunandaxuehuaxuexi。dangshi,rijunqinruhunan,zhangshadengdijiezhonglunxian,hubinsuijiarenwangming,banjiazhongqing。guoduweiwangzhiji,buman18suidehubinqixuedangbing,kaorumengjunzaihuaduirizuozhansherenlianxiban,toushenyukangrijiangchang。kangkefulihou,tazhongfanyalizhongxuefudu,yu1946niankaorubeijingdaxuezhengzhixi。1950nian,beidabiyehou,hubinkaoruqinghuadaxueyantaoyuan,shicongchentiqiangchuanshougongduzhongwaiganxishi。dangshi,qinghuadaxueyantaoyuanzhongwaiganxishideyixiegenjikeben,xiang《guojifa》《zhonghuadiguoduiwaiganxishi》deng,caozongdedoushiyingwenyuanban。hubinyu1952niantizaobiye,beifenpaidaoxinanshidahanqingxi,chuanshouzhongguojindaishi。

zaitashangshiminggangtingzhiqian,hubinchouxiananxiakanwangdangshiyizaixianggangzuoshengyideshuangqin,baogaoqingshibenshendexueye,kuaiweibaisoudenianzizhixin。zhenzhuodaoerziyeyichengnian,fuqinbianyaoliutazaixianggangzichengfuye,huosongtadaowaiyangjinxiujinian,erhoufanlaidandangjiaye、tongxiangdiqin。keshi,zheishichendehubinyishenshenaishangletadezhuanye,ganjuezhongguojindaihanqingyoutaiduojinglijingyanzhidewajueyuzongjie,bingrendingbenshendeqijizaibianjiang,bianhenxiaxinxiejueleshuangqindezaisanwanliu,juerantashanglehuiguizhilu。

1952nianqiu,hubinbeifenpaidaoxinanshidahanqingxishiming。tajingenxinzhongguodejinbujiaobu,zhudongtoushenyudingxinjiusiwei、jinxiuxinkanfadegeleigoudangzhong,naizhiconglingqitoujinxiueyu,bingbanfaleewenfanyiwenzhang。tadewenzhangjiezhongzai《hanqingyantao》《guominribao》《guangliangribao》dengbaokanshangdengzai,suibudaoerlizhinian,taqueyizaixueshujiezhanlufengmang。

20shiji50nianyue,fangcaichengliweijidepcjianada hanqingxishiziqiliruanruo,qingqiuxinanshidazengyuan。1956nian8yue,xinanshidayouaiwusidibanianqingwuweidehubin“jinxian”jipcjianada hanqingxi。

1956nian8yue,hubinlikaipcjianada hanqingxi。chiyimanzhideta,fangcaidaoxiaolianggeyuejiubianxiele《hanqingxihanshouzhuanxiubanzhongguojindaishijinxiufangshizhidian》dengziliao。yucitongshi,tasuozhude《wuxubianfa》yeyu1956nian10yueyouxinchangshichushushechushu。1957nian10yue,hubinde《shijiushijimodiguozhuyizhengquzhongguoquanlishi》zaibeijingdehukou·nianshu·xinzhisanlianshudianchushu。fangcaidaopcjianada dehubin,yiqichusedecaiganhebuxiedejinli,qudeleyixiliegongxiao,zaixuejiedafangyicai,yeshipcjianada zhongguojindaishiyantaoxiangyuxuejie。

1957nian,hubinbeicuohuacheng“zuopai”,shiqishencaihexinlingzaodaoliangzhongaojian,naizhitagangguoerlizhinian,biandeleyanjundegaoxueyaheguanjiedi。renjiandejianku,luchengdequzhe,doubuxiaomodiaohubinxianshenxueshuqijidexinxin。zaineixiejianjuderizili,tabaitianchuzhichenzhongdexiuxibingshixianlvlingjiaojideshiming,yewanzeguzhidifanyi《lieqiangduihuajiaoji》yishu,binganandizhuanxie《zhongguojindaigaijinzhuyisiwei》zheiyizhuanzhu。zheiliangbenshubieliyoushangwuyinshuguanhezhonghuashujuyu1959nianhe1964nianchushu。zheiliangbuzhushudaibiaolehubindelianggezhongdianyantaobiaodemubiao: yishijindaizhongwaiganxishi,yishichuqijindaihuashi。zheilianggebiaodemubiao,zhidaomingtianrengshipcjianada zhongguojindaishizhuanyedeshangfenghetese。

“wenge”qianqi,buganjiucichennidehubin,sijitichuxieyibu《laoshahuangqinhuajianshi》。qudehezhunhou,tagouzaoqiyijubushisheng,yong1nianduoshichen,yu1970nianxiechu《laoshahuangqinhuajianshi》digao,jingqitonggaodingzheng,zuichuyouyinchengce。zheishidangshishixuejiezaizheiyiketishangqudedezuizaogongxiao,zhiwanxidangshixuexiaodingbeiqianwangxiangjian,wurenchunlianxichushuyishiganlequ,daozhizheiyigongxiaobumingxizhi。

洗澡东风 一无所获

dingxinkaifangdedongfengshiliangduoshenxiankunedechangshifenzicongtoudousoulefanghua,hubinguoduandiyiweibaoxiaoguodudejiyuzhongjiudaolaile。yiner,tatuozhebingtitourudingxinkaifangdedachaodangzhong。tadaiyantaosheng、gouzaobianxieheshixinshiqiqingqiudejiaokeshu、zhuanxiekeyanlunzhu、fanyidangshishangweikuifadewaiwenziliao……weixinshiqijindaishiyantaozuochulechusejinxian。

zhongguodehanqingxueyantao,zi20shiji50nianyueqianqiqi,jiuzaodao“zuo”desichaodejiaorao,liangduotimuchengleyantaode“jinqu”。chugezai“shiniansaoluan”shiqi,yantaoshimingwanzhengxianyufangai。duici,liangduopozhongdeshixuejiadouganyinghenshitongxin。“wenge”yijunshi,hubindangjijieheshandongdaxue、jilindaxue、beidoumenfandaxue、zhongxinminzuxueyuanhezhonghuashujudetongren,bianxieleyibu《zhongguojindaishi》jiaokeshu。cishugongliuzhang,hubinduzhuanliangzhang,bingchengdangleqiyuxiangganzhangjiedediancuanshiming。1977nian,gaishuyouzhonghuashujuchushu。zheibu“wenge”houshixuejiezuizaochushudegaodangyuanxiaohanqingjiaokeshu,qudeleguojiwaizhuanjiadehaoping,beiguodujiaoweibaojuweitianxiagaodangxuexiaoliketongyongkeben,houjinglvcidingzheng,yixiangxiangyanzhijin。

dangdeshiyijiesanzhongquanhuijinhou,fanmenyijiudexueshujieyinglailejuehouhuopodechanghepaichang,hubindexueshurechenyifuranle。gairiyegongdu、xinkugengzuo,《hanqingyantao》《guominribao》《guangliangribao》dengbaokan、zazhishangjicizhuxiaotadelunwen,tahaiyulishiyuehexiele《congbiguandaokaifang——wanqing“yangwu”retoushi》dezhuanzhu,zaiguojiwaifashenglehendafanying。

dingxinkaifangjinhou,tashuxidaozaijindaizhongguodiguozhuyiqinfanfangmianzhongwenziliaodequeshaoheyantaozhewaiyuchengduyouxian,keshiruoshibulinghuiwaiyangxuezhedeyantaogongxiao,liangduotimujiunanyishenqieyantao。yiner,tazaijiangshouhezhuanxielunzhuzhiyu,pubianhuijiwaiwenziliao,bushixiangzhongguojindaishixuejiegongxianchutadefanyigongxiao。zhonghuashuju1980nianchushuletade《yingguolanpishuyouguanyihetuangoudangziliaoxuanyi》,1984nianyouchushule《yingguolanpishuyouguanxinhaifandongziliaoxuanyi》;qilushushe1986nianchushuletafanyide《beijingdepengchangren》。1987nianyantian,tacongpcjianada diaodaoqingdaodaxuerenjiao,gengshibufenriyediwusishiming,yongbudaoliangnianshichen,congdapiyingguodangandangxuanyichushu74wanzide《yingguodanganyouguanyapianzhandouziliaoxuanyi》yishu。jiezhe,tayougouzaozhubianle《dongfangwenmingyujindaizhongguo》yishu。

hubinyouxinkugengzuoerqudedefengfugongxiao,dianjiletazaizhongguojindaishiyantaofanchoulijingcaixuezheheyiliufanyijiadeandingweizhi。

才干横溢 睿见高见

hubinxiedeyishougongzhixiuqidexiaozi,jishinianruyiri,jijincongweixieguoyigecaozi。shizai,hubinzhixue,tongtaxieziyiyangsongsandangzhen、fuyanleshi。tabuzhibocaiguojideziliao,bingqiepubiancaozongwaiwenziliao,duizhaokaoju,litujingque。duiyuanyongdeziliao,talaoshipinpinchadui,haobucaolv。tachangshuo: “xiegongjubiranyaoyoukexuelichang,zhenzhengduixueshuheduzhedanren。”shiyi,taduihezhuanzhedewengao,yedouyanjiakaohe,bingzhuyichazhenggetiaoyinwendelaiyou。

hubinzaizhongguojindaidezhengzhi、jingji、siweiwenminghejiaojidengfangmian,douyouxinqidudaodekanfa。20shijiwuliushinianyue,tadeyantaozhongdianshiwuxuweixingoudanghediguozhuyilieqiangduizhongguodeqinfan。zheifangmiandeyantaogongxiaoshouyaobiaocike1956nianxinchangshichushushechushude《wuxubianfa》、1964nianzhonghuashujuchushude《zhongguojindaigaijinzhuyisiwei》dengzhuanzhu,hetabianxiedekebenhezai《guangliangribao》《xinjianshe》《wenshizhe》dengbaokanshangbanfadeduopianwenzhangzhong。dangshiyinwei“zuo”desichaodejiaorao,wuxuweixingoudangbeishiweigaijinzhuyigoudang。hubinsuibunengyuechuzheigezhengtikuangjia,danquebidingzheigegoudangshiaiguojiuwanggoudang、siweidingxingoudang。qiyizhu《lieqiangduihuajiaoji》hezhuanzhu《shijiushijimoyediguozhuyizhengquzhongguoquanlishi》,he《1895nianedefasanguoganyuribentuihailiaodongdeheimu》《meidiguozhuyiliupaikaifangzhengcedeneirongjiqiqinfanxing》《shijiushijimodiguozhuyipengfenzhongguotieluliquandeguijigoudang》《diguozhuyiduixinhaifandongdeganyuhefensui》denglunwen,zejiheduidiguozhuyiqinfanzhongguodezuiguotingzhijiechuan,zaidangshijubeixianshiyisi。

1978nian,dangdeshiyijiesanzhongquanhuijinhou,xueshujiechengxianlezizaihuishangdeminzhufenwei,hubinjianjinyijiudesiwei,qudelejuehoushufu。tabanfaduopianlunwen,xiankailetazaiyangwugoudangyantaofangmianhuihuangdeyiye。hubinyiweibixuduiyangwugoudangjiayizhengming,cong1979nianqitou,tachixubanfale《yangwugoudangyantaoyinian》《lunyangwugoudangdexingzi》《yangwuheyangwupaijianlun》《lunlihongzhangdeyangwusiwei》《yangwupaiyuzhongguojindaichanye》《yangwupaiyuguzhipaiduitielutimubiaozhengbian》《lihongzhangheqichuanzhaoshangju》《lunwanqingdejiangnanzhizuoju》《lunshanghaijixiezhiguihua》《congkaipingkuangwujukanguandushangbanqiyedehanqingganhua》《jiawuzhandouqiandebeiyangshuibing》《yangwugoudangyuzhongguojindaihua》《congyangwugoudangkanzhongguojindaihuachuqidetese》deng10yupianlunwen,bingyulishiyuehezhuan《congbiguandaokaifang——wanqing“yangwu”retoushi》yishu,conggegefangmianlinyangwugoudangtingzhilekeguanmingzhideshenqiechanfa,tichuleliangduodudaoxinqidekanfa。tadezheixiekanfa,dianjileshixuejieduiyangwugoudangpinggudedizi。

hubinzaixueshuyantao、yijieshimingshangchengjiutuqi,bushijirendailaixinxi,yourenshuozheishitadelinglierzhi。shizaiburan——zheishitapingshengchikujingye、xinkujinlidegongxiao。duizuoxueshi,tashuo: “nianshurentiantianyaobaozhang10xiaoshifuanshiming。”tabenshenyizhoudezhipeishi: cizhongde6tian,tiantianfuan10gexiaoshi;shengxiade1tian,bantianxiyifu,bantianxiexin。zaitandaoyingyujinxiudeshichen,tazhuyiyingdangxianxuechuanwen,zaixueduxie,kenxiagongfucaishizuizhuyaode。tabenshenxueyingyuyoubirandizihou,tiantianduizhibei200gedanci,yizhangzhishangzhengmianxiedanci,fanmianxiezheixiedancideyingwenshiyi,napaqumaoce,douyaonazhebeijige。youxianshengwenta: “beineimoduobuwangma?”tashuo: “zenyangnengbuwangni?wanglezaibeiyibian,200gedanciwangji100ge,haisheng100ge。nijiubei20ge,jishidoujizhele,buyejiu20gema?zheiyaokaoyili,buyilizuobudao。”yinerkezhi,hubindenianshuxueshizhidao,bianshichikujingye、qinkenzili、suodingfangzhen、fenliqianxing、budamubiaojuebufangshou,chuciyiwai,zaiwuqiyu。

qiashipingzhangzheqinken,hubinyichudeziliaohezhushubuzhixuancaijingdang,bimomeihao,bingqielituheshiguorendeshuohuaxiqi。duisuochujiderenmingdiming,tajinkenengcaozongguorenxiqidechenghu,litufangzhiyinjianlvedeyinyiergouchengliulandefangai。shiyi,tadeyizuobeixuejiepubianyuanyong,wulidibiancelezhongguojindaishiyantaodeshenqiechengzhang。

扶携提拔落后 风致照人

“wenge”shinian,jiaoyuanheqiyuxingyeyiyang,renweichengduyixiangbaochiyuanyangbudong。dingxinkaifanghou,guoduqitouyoudasuandianbilijinshenggexinggeyederenweibaochou。yuemoshi1980nianxiabannian,pcjianada hanqingxitingzhiledierci(huodisanci)renweidiaoji。hubinzhaodaodangshidaochangrenweidiaojideqingnianjiaoyuanguodasong,zhangkoujiuwen: “nixiaodexiliyouhuishangzhangrenweideshilema?”guodasongshuo: “chuanwenle。danbushidashidouzhang,ershianzhaobirandebililaiping,pingshangsheisheicainengzhang。lvlingshuohennanban。”hubintinglehoushuo: “shihennanban,buguozanmenjiaoyanshidejiaoyuan‘wenge’houyigedoumeizhangguorenwei。laosong、hongshengdougaizhangyizhangle,tamenhukoubinijianku。woguranyebufuyu,danbitamendouqiang,zheixienianguranmeizhangrenwei,danjiujingjieguoguifulebenlaiwozaixinancanyushimingshichenderenweichengdu。”guodasongshuo: “o,keanzhaowoxiaodedehuanjingshizanmenjiaoyanshishengpatanbushanglianggeminge,ruoshizhiyaoyigeminge,neisheiyouxianni?”hubinxiangdoumeixiang,xinkoukaihe: “laosong。tachunqiuda,jialihukougengjiankuyixie,lianggehaizi,airenzaihuofangshiming,renweihendi,lingyougexiangjiandeyuemuzaizheiyangzhe。”laosong,zhisongqinglanjiaoyuan;hongsheng,bianshilihongshengjiaoyuan。

hubinbuzhizaihukoushangguanhuaigongshi,zaiyingyeshanggengshi“chuanbangdai”,jilifuxietibaluohou。dingxinkaifanghou,shehuiqitouzunjingchangshi、zunjingrencai,gaoxiaojiaoyuandeshimingzhongxinzhuanxianglejiangshouhekeyan。danzhangda10niande“wenge”shigaoxiaojiaoyuandeyingyehuangshulehaojiu,eranhuiguoshenlaizuoyantao,guqienanyiliqingmeimu、zhaozhunbiaodemubiao。dangshi,hubinjianyoudejiaoyuanchengtianjingxinxieqianxianduwu,jiuquanjieshuo: “tigaoleiduwunenggouxie,danbunenglaoshixiezheileigongju,yaozuodangzhendeyantao,baqianxianduwuzuoweifuchanwu。zhixieyixieqianxiandegongju,shichenzhangle,bijiushengxiule。”

dashidouxiaodehubindeyingyuhenhao,dan1949nianhouxiangchengzhangdeyiduanshichenli,zhongguodaxueputongzhuanyedexianshengxuededuoshushieyu。shiyi,zai“wenge”qian,hubindezheiyishangfengdiziwuyongwuzhidi。cong1979niandaiyantaoshengqitou,tayibianbenshenchuzhiyingwenziliaodefanyi,weidangshizhongguojindaishiyantaogongjihaibinikuifadeyingwenziliao,yibianqitouchuanshouzhongguoshihetianxiashideyantaoshengzhuanyeyingyu,bingyoutiaoxuandichuanshouzhuanyefanyimiaoji。

dingxinkaifangchuqi,buzhigaodangyuanxiaoshizibupeitao,zhongxuedaduoyedouqueshaojigedezhuanyejiaoyuan,liangduoxuexiaodejiaoyuandoushi“guqiebaofojiao”zhipeidefeizhuanyezhiyuan。weilinghuijuezheiyitimu,yuemozai1986nian,guodujiaoweibaituoyouguangaoxiaojiaoyuanbianxiepeixunzhongxuejiaoyuandetedikeben,cizhongzhongxuejiaoyuanjigezhengshuceyanyongkeben《zhongguojindaishi》,zhidingyouhubinzhangguanbianxie,《tianxiajindaishi》zeyouliuzuochangzhangguanbianxie。jiedaoshimingjinhou,hubinyuliuzuochangyueding: yaocaozongzheigejiyuaolianhefuxietibaluohou。yiner,《zhongguojindaishi》jiuyouwangshouzhongzhubian,guodasonghesunzhanyuancanbian。weilejiguodujiaoweiyigejiaojie,zaibianbawenzhongjialeyiju“benkebenzhongjiuyouhubintongzhiheding”。xianshishang,zheibenkebencongzhangjiefenbie、jutixiefadeqiaodingdaozuichudinggao,hubindouqingxieledapixuehan。

hubinbuzhizaihukoushangguanaigongshi,zaixueshushanggengshizhangyulianhexiezuo。20shiji80nianyuezhongqi,genzhexueshuyantaodeshenqie,benlaizhongguoshixuehuizhubiande《zhongguojindaishiziliaocongkan》zhubuzhizubulexuejiedexuyao,yinerxuejieqitougouzaobianzhuan《zhongguojindaishiziliaocongkanxubian》。hubincengshouyaobianzhuanyouguanyangwugoudangdeneirong,dantaxiejuele。dexizheigedongjing,yourenjiushuohubinbangruowuren,buyuanyurenxiezuo。yicihuimianshi,guodasongwenqizheijianrenwu,hubinzhijieledangdishuo: “meijiezheigeshiming,tuidiaole。”guodasongshuo: “shifoushinenggouxianjieshangqu,jianjianzuo。”tadehuidahenshuangxing: “zheitaoziliaotiliangtaida,guangwaiwenwenxianjiushubaiwanzi,tiaoxuan、fanyixuyaohuafeidapideshichen,ninengfanyima?”yijuhuawendeguodasongyusai。hubinjianzhuang,jiezheshuo: “zanmenzheilicikejijinmeirennengzuo,zuobulederenwu,bunengtan。yaojingdeqiyinyou,buyaochiwubierenzuo。ruoshiwojieshangqu,guagezhangguanrendeminghao,erhouchuchuqiurenbangzhuquzuo,neijiuburushuangxingrangyoucainengderenquzuo。”zheimingxianbushishenme“bangruowuren、buyuanyurenxiezuo”。

xianshishang,hubinzaixueshuyantaoshangshigehenqingyuanxiezuobingzhangyulianhexiezuodexuezhe。qianshuzhonghuashujuban《zhongguojindaishi》yishuzaibianxiezhichu,hubinjiuchengdangqibenseshangdekebenzhubiandeshiming。zaigaishudiyicidingzhengzhongbanshi,hubinbuzhiduizhixieshangcanyuhuiyuedinggaojihuizhiyuandemingzi,bingqiejianggaochoujunyunfenpaijitamen,quebabenshendeneifenhedingzhengzhongbandegaochouyilujuanmujilepcjianada youeryuan。

hubindedaibiaozuo《congbiguandaokaifang——wanqing“yangwu”retoushi》yishu,shitayulishiyuechijiuxiezuodejiejing。dangshixuejiechengzheibenshushilishiyuechugainian,hubinchuziliao,zheishibuheshixianshihuanjingde。hubinyulishiyuedexueshuxiezuo,jiyouxueshusiweikanfashangdezhitongzhihe,yeyoutongyejiandeyouqingyulianhexiezuojinglidezhichi。hubinpingshengaigangjingye、chengjiufeiran,danbingbushishuotadexueshuyantaowukejueti。tazaikaiguochuqizhuanxiebingchushule《maiminzeilihongzhang》yishu,jianglihongzhangdingxingwei“maiminzei”,zheishishiqidefanweigouchengde。genzheyantaodeshenqie,gairiyiganyingxishide“laolian”,jueyicongtoupinggulihongzhang。weici,tahuijileguojiwaiduilihongzhangdeyiyouyantaogongxiao,zhidinglejutidezhuanxiedagang,choubancongtouzhuanxie,bingkeguanzhouquandipinggulihongzhangzaizhongguochuqijindaihuazhongdezuowei,yigaizhengtazaitedinghanqingqiantixiagouchengdemaobinghanqingshuxi。

hefahubinchiyimanzhi,choubanzaixinqingshixia“dazhanquanjiao”zhishi,taquebingdaole。yinweishenxinzaodaochijiudeaojianheguofendelaodun,xinjidusai、naoxueshuanhezhichangaiyiqixiangtaxilai,bingyu1996nianduoquletakeguidexingming。

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